Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion Book

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion


  • Author : National Research Council
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2005-05-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN 10 : 0309095689
  • Total Read : 83
  • File Size : 9,5 Mb

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Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion Summary:

Perchlorateâ€"a powerful oxidant used in solid rocket fuels by the military and aerospace industryâ€"has been detected in public drinking water supplies of over 11 million people at concentrations of at least 4 parts per billion (ppb). High doses of perchlorate can decrease thyroid hormone production by inhibiting the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thyroid hormones are critical for normal growth and development of the central nervous system of fetuses and infants. This report evaluates the potential health effects of perchlorate and the scientific underpinnings of the 2002 draft risk assessment issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The report finds that the body can compensate for iodide deficiency, and that iodide uptake would likely have to be reduced by at least 75% for months or longer for adverse health effects, such as hypothryroidism, to occur. The report recommends using clinical studies of iodide uptake in humans as the basis for determining a reference dose rather than using studies of adverse health effects in rats that serve as EPA's basis. The report suggests that daily ingestion of 0.0007 milligrams of perchlorate per kilograms of body weightâ€"an amount more than 20 times the reference dose proposed by EPAâ€"should not threaten the health of even the most sensitive populations.

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion Book

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion


  • Author : National Research Council
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2005-04-18
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 276
  • ISBN 10 : 9780309181358
  • Total Read : 72
  • File Size : 10,9 Mb

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Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion Summary:

Perchlorateâ€"a powerful oxidant used in solid rocket fuels by the military and aerospace industryâ€"has been detected in public drinking water supplies of over 11 million people at concentrations of at least 4 parts per billion (ppb). High doses of perchlorate can decrease thyroid hormone production by inhibiting the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thyroid hormones are critical for normal growth and development of the central nervous system of fetuses and infants. This report evaluates the potential health effects of perchlorate and the scientific underpinnings of the 2002 draft risk assessment issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The report finds that the body can compensate for iodide deficiency, and that iodide uptake would likely have to be reduced by at least 75% for months or longer for adverse health effects, such as hypothryroidism, to occur. The report recommends using clinical studies of iodide uptake in humans as the basis for determining a reference dose rather than using studies of adverse health effects in rats that serve as EPA's basis. The report suggests that daily ingestion of 0.0007 milligrams of perchlorate per kilograms of body weightâ€"an amount more than 20 times the reference dose proposed by EPAâ€"should not threaten the health of even the most sensitive populations.

Perchlorate Book

Perchlorate


  • Author : Kathleen Sellers
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2006-08-30
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 226
  • ISBN 10 : 9781482275124
  • Total Read : 93
  • File Size : 7,6 Mb

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Perchlorate Summary:

The development of analytical methods for identifying widespread perchlorate contamination brought about an explosion of research into the environmental problems and their potential solutions along with a corresponding increase in the availability of information. Unlike reference works that focus on only a few aspects of this contaminant, Perchlora

Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water Book

Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water


  • Author : Robert A. Howd
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2007-11-09
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 392
  • ISBN 10 : 9780470173374
  • Total Read : 86
  • File Size : 15,9 Mb

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Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water Summary:

A comprehensive reference on state-of-the-art risk assessment methodologies for drinking water Risk Assessment for Chemicals in Drinking Water discusses the major steps and goals in risk assessments and suggests ways to improve the methodologies and accuracy, while consolidating up-to-date information on the current principles and practices in one authoritative reference. After an enlightening overview of risk assessment practices and regulatory guidelines, it: Includes descriptions of the use of variability analysis, exposure analysis, physiologically based pharmacokinetics, and modeling for both cancer and non-cancer endpoints Describes the practices of major organizations, including the U.S. EPA, Health Canada, World Health Organization, and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Includes complete chapters on risk assessment for essential nutrients, arsenic, chloroform, and perchlorate Explains how to address susceptible sub-populations, including the elderly and infants and children, in risk assessments Covers the potential of using genomic and proteomic screens Addresses recent advances, emerging issues, and future challenges With contributions and perspectives from leading scientists, this is the definitive resource for health and environmental scientists, toxicologists, risk assessors and managers, regulators, consultants, and other professionals responsible for the safety of drinking water.

Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health Book

Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health


  • Author : Daniela Bonofiglio
  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release Date : 2021-01-21
  • Genre: Medical
  • Pages : 194
  • ISBN 10 : 9783039369065
  • Total Read : 73
  • File Size : 12,9 Mb

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Effects of Iodine Intake on Human Health Summary:

Iodine, a key component of thyroid hormones, is considered an essential micronutrient for proper health at all life stages. Indeed, an inadequate dietary intake of iodine is responsible for several functional and developmental abnormalities. The most serious consequences of iodine deficiency include hypothyroidism, early abortion, low birth weight, preterm delivery, neurocognitive impairment, and mental retardation. On the other hand, the consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, such as goiter, are less well understood but represent an important priority for research and public health practice. Over the last several decades, many countries across the globe have introduced mandatory salt iodization programs, which have dramatically reduced the number of iodine-deficient countries. However, despite substantial progress worldwide, mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. Thus, the ongoing monitoring of the population iodine status remains crucially important, and attention may need to be paid to vulnerable life stage groups.

Water Pollution Issues and Developments Book

Water Pollution Issues and Developments


  • Author : Sarah V. Thomas
  • Publisher : Nova Publishers
  • Release Date : 2008
  • Genre: Science
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN 10 : 1604562080
  • Total Read : 62
  • File Size : 9,8 Mb

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Water Pollution Issues and Developments Summary:

Pollution is undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities so that the environment becomes harmful or unfit for living things; especially applicable to the contamination of soil, water, or the atmosphere by the discharge of harmful substances. In addition to the harm to living beings, both present or future and known or unknown, pollution cleanup and surveillance are enormous financial drains of the economies of the world. This book focuses on issues and developments critical for the field.